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Viet Nam & the MDGs

Viet Nam and the MDGs

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Viet Nam has made very impressive progress towards achieving the MDGs and has been successful in meeting some of them – such as MDG 1 on eradication of extreme hunger and poverty – way ahead of the 2015 deadline. Viet Nam is on track to meet several other goals. At the same time, if Viet Nam is to achieve all the MDGs with equity, it is important that progress is sustained, that rising disparities are better targeted, that risks are anticipated and that remaining gaps are addressed.

mdg_1MDG 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger

Of all the MDGs, Viet Nam has made the most impressive progress on MDG 1 on poverty reduction. From a poverty rate of 58.1 percent in 1993, Viet Nam successfully reduced poverty to an estimated rate of 14.5 percent1 in 2008 – a reduction of 75 percent. The food poverty rate reduced by more than two-thirds, from 24.9 percent in 1993 to 6.9 percent in 2008. Poverty has been alleviated among all demographic groups, in urban and rural areas, and across geographical regions. Progress in reducing malnutrition has also been significant, falling from 41 percent to 11.7 percent in 2011.

mdg_2MDG 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education

Viet Nam has made significant progress in achieving universal primary education. In 2009, the net enrolment rate in primary school was 95.5 percent, the primary school completion rate was 88.2 percent and the literacy rate of people aged 15-24 years was 97.1 percent. The difference between boys and girls in primary school net enrolment rates was as little as one percent.

mdg_3MDG 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women

Viet Nam has made strong progress on its gender equality targets. It has been very successful in increasing girls’ participation in education at primary and secondary levels. The primary net enrolment rate is now 91.5 percent for girls and 92.3 percent for boys, the lower secondary net enrolment rate 82.6 percent for girls and 80.1 percent for boys, and the upper secondary net enrolment rate 63.1 percent for girls and 53.7 percent for boys. The labour force participation rate is 73 percent for women, compared to 82 percent for men. Women’s representation in the National Assembly is currently 24.4 percent.

mdg_4MDG 4: Reduce Child Mortality

Viet Nam has already achieved the targets for both under-five mortality and infant mortality, with both these rates being halved between 1990 and 2006. The infant mortality rate was reduced from 44.4 per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 14 in 2011 (MICS 2011). The under-five mortality rate has also been reduced considerably, from 58 per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 16 in 2011 (MICS 2011). The ratio of children under five who are underweight fell from 25.2 percent in 2005 to 18.9 percent in 2009.

mdg_5_altMDG 5: Improve Maternal Health

Maternal mortality has declined considerably over the last two decades, from 233 per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 69 per 100,000 live births in 2009, with approximately two-thirds of this decrease related to safer pregnancy. Good progress has also been made in expanding access to quality reproductive health, including maternal and neonatal health; family planning; increased use of modern contraception; and establishment of stronger programmes, policies and laws for reproductive health and rights, as well as measures to provide quality services to the poor and other vulnerable groups.

mdg_6_alt_2MDG 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases

Viet Nam has made significant improvements in the legal and policy framework related to HIV in 2012. A new national HIV strategy that is aligned with global targets by 2015 has been approved. The first National Targeted Programme on HIV/AIDS has been endorsed for 2012-2015. The HIV prevalence is estimated at 16.7 percent among men who have sex with men in 2009, at 13.4 percent among men who inject drugs and three percent among female sex workers in 2011. The total number of individuals on anti-retroviral treatment (ART) at the end of 2011 has increased by 1.5 times that in December 2009, with ART coverage standing at 53 percent in adults and 83 percent in children. However, despite this impressive progress Viet Nam is still likely to miss the MDG target of reversing the epidemic.

Impressive progress on prevention and control of malaria shows that Viet Nam has already achieved the MDG target on malaria control. Viet Nam is also acknowledged to have done a good job in controlling other epidemics such as SARS, H5N1 and H1N1.

mdg7_altMDG 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability

Viet Nam has been making commendable progress on environmental sustainability but is unlikely to achieve MDG 7 by 2015. Climate change is widening the gaps in reaching key targets of the goal.

Achievements made so far include the inclusion of sustainable development principles into the socio-economic development strategy (2011-2020) and socio-economic development plans (2006-2010 and 2011-2015). Forest coverage has increased from 28.8 percent in 1990 to 39.5 percent of total land in 2010. More than 96 percent of all households have access to modern energy and are connected to the electricity grid.

Although Viet Nam’s green-house gas emissions are low, accounting for only 0.3 percent of the global emissions in 2004, CO2 emissions per capita increased four times in the period 1990-2008. Energy use (kilogram oil equivalent) per $1,000 GDP (PPP) was reduced from 407 in 1990 to 267 in 2008.

Meanwhile, 92 percent of households had access to safe drinking water in 2011, up from 78.7 percent in 2000. Rural households with access to safe water rose from 73.5 to 89.4 percent over the last decade. In 2011, 78 percent of all households and 71.4 percent of rural households had access to sanitary latrines, up from 44.1 percent and 32.5 percent in 2000 respectively. The proportion of the population living in temporary housing fell from 15.9 percent in 1999 to 7.8 percent in 2009 .

mdg_8MDG 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development

Poverty reduction and sustainable development are clearly linked to trade, debt relief and aid, better enabled by developing global partnerships. Viet Nam has made major strides in developing global partnerships for development since 2000, including assession to the World Trade Organization, expanded cooperation with ASEAN, a term as non-permanent member of the UN Security Council (2008-2009), and involvement in a number of new free trade agreements. Ensuring social equity and sustainability of the country's development process will require continued and expanded partnerships in all areas in the coming years.

Spotlight

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72 hours to make the world better for children with disabilities

TOM (Tikkun Olam Makers) is an international non-profit organization using design and technology to address neglected problems. The TOM event is an intersection between challenges and technical solutions. Participants with different backgrounds and expertise gather together for a 72-hour “makeathon” and build a product to help someone in need. TOM focuses on inclusive designs with a reasonable price for people with disabilities. In Hebrew, Tikkun Olam means changing the world; and this is TOM’s mission. (See more information about TOM at www.tomglobal.org) Dead

In 2016, the United States Consulate General in Ho Chi Minh City, the Embassy of the State of Israel, UNICEF, Disability Research and Capacity Development (DRD), FABLAB Saigon, and other partners from academia and the private sector will co-organize the TOM event in Ho Chi Minh City. This is a unique opportunity for children with disabilities and families to present their challenges, as well as share ideas of products that would help to reduce their challenges. Based on these ideas, technical teams will develop innovative solutions during a 72-hour “makeathon” to help children have a better life.


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The Secretary-General’s message on Human Rights Day

 

10 December 2015 - Amid large-scale atrocities and widespread abuses across the world, Human Rights Day should rally more concerted global action to promote the timeless principles that we have collectively pledged to uphold.

In a year that marks the 70th anniversary of the United Nations, we can draw inspiration from the history of the modern human rights movement, which emerged from the Second World War.

At that time, President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States identified four basic freedoms as the birthright of all people: freedom of expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want and freedom from fear.  His wife, Eleanor Roosevelt, joined forces at the United Nations with human rights champions from around the world to enshrine these freedoms in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.


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The Secretary-General’s message on International Anti-corruption Day

 

9 December 2015 - Global attitudes towards corruption have changed dramatically.  Where once bribery, corruption and illicit financial flows were often considered part of the cost of doing business, today corruption is widely -- and rightly -- understood as criminal and corrosive. The new 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, our plan to end poverty and ensure lives of dignity for all, recognizes the need to fight corruption in all its aspects and calls for significant reductions in illicit financial flows as well as for the recovery of stolen assets.

Corruption has disastrous impacts on development when funds that should be devoted to schools, health clinics and other vital public services are instead diverted into the hands of criminals or dishonest officials.


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The Secretary-General’s message on World AIDS Day

 

1 December 2015 - This year, we mark World AIDS Day with new hope. I applaud the staunch advocacy of activists. I commend the persistent efforts of health workers. And I pay tribute to the principled stance of human rights defenders and the courage of all those who have joined forces to fight for global progress against the disease.

World leaders have unanimously committed to ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 as part of the Sustainable Development Goals adopted in September. This commitment reflects the power of solidarity to forge, from a destructive disease, one of the most inclusive movements in modern history.


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The Secretary-General’s message on the International Day For The Elimination of Violence Against Women

 

25 November 2015 - The atrocity crimes being committed against women and girls in conflict zones, along with the domestic abuse found in all countries, are grave threats to progress.

I am deeply concerned about the plight of women and girls living in conditions of armed conflict, who suffer various forms of violence, sexual assault, sexual slavery and trafficking. Violent extremists are perverting religious teachings to justify the mass subjugation and abuse of women. These are not random acts of violence, or the incidental fallout of war, but rather systematic efforts to deny women's freedoms and control their bodies. As the world strives to counter and prevent violence extremism, the protection and empowerment of women and girls must be a key consideration.



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