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UNFPA

Viet Nam's population reaches 90,493 million people - Total fertility rate of Viet Nam reaches 2.09 children per woman

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17122014-unfpa-03-300HA NOI, 17 December 2014 - Key findings of the 2014 Inter-censal Population and Housing Survey (IPS) indicate that Viet Nam's population was 90,493,352 people as of April 1 2014, made up of 44,618,668 males (49.3%) and 45,874,684 females (50.7%).

The survey's findings, presented today at a Dissemination Conference organised by the General Statistics Office (GSO), provide the most important population indicators for development and evaluation of the implementation process of socio-economic development policies and plans as well as finalization of the Millennium Development Goals goals.

Over the last five years there has been a total population increase of 4,646,355 people, at 929,271 per annum. The average annual population growth rate between 2009 and 2014 was 1.06%, that is lower as compared to 1.2% per annum during 1999-2009. The total fertility rate is 2.09 children per woman. This confirms that country's fertility rate has been continuously declining and stable at a replacement level over last decade, as reported by GSO in the annual Population Change and Family Planning Surveys. The Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is 14.9 infant deaths per 1000 live births that continuously confirmed Government efforts over the past years to improve maternal and child healthcare.

Three cities and provinces had populations of more than three million people - Ho Chi Minh City (7.955 million), Ha Noi (7.067 million) and Thanh Hoa province (3.491 million).

The findings also indicate that the Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB) reached 112.2 male births per 100 female births, which is slightly higher than that of the 2009 census (110.5 male births per 100 female births). The unusually imbalanced in SRB is still a significant challenge for Viet Nam, despite Government efforts to address the SRB imbalance over the past years. An imbalanced SRB will affect the structure of the population's sex ratio in the future, which will result in a situation where there are too many men in society putting women at higher risk of abuse, trafficking and early marriage.

According to the new data, 33.1% of Viet Nam's population live in urban areas and 66.9% in rural areas. During 2009 and 2014, the average annual growth rate of the urban population was 3.3%. The rapid growth of the urban population is mainly attributed to migration and the urbanization process which has transformed certain rural areas into new urban quarters.

The 2014 survey data also reveals that total dependency ratio is 44%, indicating Viet Nam is still in the demographic dividend. In addition, proportion of people aged 65 and older is 7.1% and ageing index is 44.6%.

"The fact that the country has entered population ageing calls for more investment in social protection for the increasing older persons. While increasing life expectancy is certainly something each family and society as a whole should celebrate, it will create challenges for the country's social security system, especially as there is an increasing trend of elderly people living on their own or in couples without their children's support," UNFPA Viet Nam Representative in Viet Nam Arthur Erken told the workshop.

Only 4.4% of population aged 5 and over has never attend school showing the continued progress in elimination of illiteracy. The proportion of those aged 15 and over with highest professional and technical qualifications is higher than in the 2009 Census.

The 2014 survey results also show continued improvements in living conditions, as 46.6% of households have permanent houses, 43.7% have semi-permanent houses, 5.9% have less-permanent houses and 3.7% have simple permanent houses. The average living area per capita is 20.6m2/person – 23m2 /person in urban areas and 19.5m2/person in rural areas.

The key findings of the 2014 survey has been prepared by consolidating the information contained in the questionnaires collected by enumerators throughout 5% of households nationwide. The consolidation exercise has been implemented by GSO offices at all levels, from district to central level. Evaluation by international experts indicates data collected in IPS is of good quality.

"Data from the population censuses and surveys is crucial in the development of Viet Nam's strategies and socio-economic plans as well as post 2015 development agenda. We strongly recommend that government agencies, ministries, bilateral and multilateral institutions, enterprises, research institutions and universities invest time and resources in analyzing and utilizing this valuable information to better inform the development of national policies, programmes and initiatives," said Erken.

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