Child injuries are an important public health issue worldwide. The unprecedented economic and social development in Viet Nam over the past two decades has contributed to the emergence of injury as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in children.
Child Injury in Viet Nam
In 2007 alone, 7,894 children and adolescents aged 0-19 died of injury. Leading causes of child injury-related death in Viet Nam include drowning, road traffic injury, poisoning, falling, burns and animal bites. Major causes of non-fatal childhood injury are falls, traffic accidents, animal bites, injury by sharp objects and burns. Similar to other low- and middle-income countries, risk factors of child injury include age, gender, hazardous environments, low socioeconomic status, which is often associated with a lack of awareness about injury risks and the lack of supervision of children, as well as limited access to safety devices and appropriate healthcare, particularly emergency and pre-hospital care. International evidence shows that all types of injuries in children are preventable. Intervention approaches based on a combination of education and training, legislation and enforcement, environmental modifications and promotion of safer products and safety devices are likely to succeed in reducing the burden of injury in children.
The purpose is to review progress on the implementation of the National Injury Prevention Policy and to make recommendations for future directions. Specific aims and objectives of the review were to: (i) Examine the conformity of national policy with international standards; (ii) Assess key achievements and constraints encountered by implementing agencies in the implementation of the National Policy; (iii) Identify lessons learned; and (iv) Provide specific recommendations based on the review for necessary adjustments and/or further development of the National Policy.
Key findings and conclusions
Background paper prepared for unicef consultancy on "Equity in access to quality healthcare for women and children" (april 8-10, ha long city, Viet Nam)
This situational analysis provides estimates of the degree of inequality in both maternal and child mortality and other high-level maternal and child health outcomes causally related to maternal and child mortality, including child morbidity, children's nutritional status and fertility. Estimates are also provided for several key intermediate health outcomes causally related to maternal and child mortality, including family planning, antenatal care, obstetric delivery care, immunization and curative care. Both early estimates for 1992/93 and recent estimates for 2006 of inequality are presented and compared. The main data sources used in the situational analysis include three household surveys, i.e., the 1992/93 Vietnam Living Standards Survey (VLSS), the 2006 MICS III and the 2006 Viet Nam Household Living Standards Survey (VHLSS), and provincelevel data from the MOH Health Information System (HIS) and other sources. In addition to inequality estimates, the situational analysis presents the results of regression analysis used to identify the underlying factors, such as age, sex, education, income, urbanization and ethnicity that are most closely associated with these outcomes. The observed inequalities are also decomposed in order to quantify the contributions made by the various underlying factors to the observed inequality.
This guide was written by Valerie Karr, a Ph.D candidate at Teachers College, Columbia University and an expert in the field of child education and disability.
The guide is a companion to the publication It’s About Ability, a child-friendly booklet version of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The development of both materials was initiated at UNICEF under the leadership of the Child Protection Section, with support from the Adolescent Development and Participation Unit. The guide and booklet were edited and produced by UNICEF’s Division of Communication.
UNICEF would like to thank Rosangela Berman Bieler and Sergio Meresman of the Inter-American Institute on Disability and Inclusive Development for peer-reviewing the guide. We also express appreciation to the many other people who commented on successive drafts: Helen Schulte (UNICEF), Ravi Karkara (UNICEF), Shaila Parveen Luna (UNICEF), Lena Karlsson (UNICEF Innocenti Research Center), Cristina Gallegos (UNICEF) , Jaclyn Tierney (UNICEF) and Carolina Hepp (UNICEF).
Challenges and Opportunities for Intervention - A report based on qualitative research conducted in Vietnam
The research team would like to thank the Reproductive Health Department at the Ministry of Health for their overall guidance and support for this study. In particular, Dr. Phuong Hoa provided leadership and oversight of the study right from its conception, and allocated precious time and energy of herself and her colleagues in the department to ensure that it was successfully completed. The authors are also grateful to Dr. Hoang Tuan of the RHD for his support and oversight of all the logistical issues, including liaising with provincial offi ces, overseeing translation, and organizing meetings.
UNICEF Vietnam provided funding for this study under the national PMTCT project supported by them. Special thanks are due to Luisa Brumana, HIV/AIDS Specialist for her intellectual guidance of this piece of work, to Mai Thu Hien, UNICEF Programme Offi cer, for oversight, support and management of the study, and to Nguyen Ngoc Trieu for administrative support.
The researchers would also like to thank the Provincial RHD in An Giang, Ho Chi Minh City and Quang Ninh for their time and support in organizing interviews and providing information. In addition, we would like to thank the many health staff who were interviewed at commune, district and provincial levels. Finally, this study owes a debt of gratitude to the all the men, women and family members who volunteered their time to respond to our questions with openness and honesty.
Lastly, all errors and omissions are solely the responsibility of the lead consultant.
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