A pilot involving four social audit tools was implemented in Viet Nam in 2010. Led by the Ministry of Planning and Investment (MPI), and supported by UNICEF, it aimed at building capacity for the social audit of the Socio-Economic Development Plan (SEDP) to enhance the its social performance, as expressed in its ability to deliver continued improvement in the living standards of Viet Nam’s population in general and of vulnerable groups in particular. This focus was on achieving this through improved Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) of social dimensions of the 2006-2010 SEDP, particularly focusing on poverty reduction, health services for children under six years old, and gender.
The Central Institute for Economic Management (CIEM), under the authority of MPI, implemented the pilots with technical support of the UK-based Overseas Development Institute (ODI). CIEM also conducted a capacity assessment of government staff in using participatory methods for planning, monitoring and evaluation. Based on this and the lessons learned from the social audit pilots, a capacity development strategy has been developed. ODI has also developed a SEDP Social Audit Toolkit with detailed information on the four tools, based on the experience gained from piloting the tools in the Vietnamese context.
This report should be of interest to national and sub-national government officials in Viet Nam who are in charge of designing, implementing, monitoring and evaluating public policies, programs and services. It should also be of interest to UNICEF and other multilateral and donor agencies that assist the government of Viet Nam in meeting its development objectives, and interested in methods/tools that allow for greater participation of citizens in assessing public policies and programs.
This guide was written by Valerie Karr, a Ph.D candidate at Teachers College, Columbia University and an expert in the field of child education and disability.
The guide is a companion to the publication It’s About Ability, a child-friendly booklet version of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The development of both materials was initiated at UNICEF under the leadership of the Child Protection Section, with support from the Adolescent Development and Participation Unit. The guide and booklet were edited and produced by UNICEF’s Division of Communication.
UNICEF would like to thank Rosangela Berman Bieler and Sergio Meresman of the Inter-American Institute on Disability and Inclusive Development for peer-reviewing the guide. We also express appreciation to the many other people who commented on successive drafts: Helen Schulte (UNICEF), Ravi Karkara (UNICEF), Shaila Parveen Luna (UNICEF), Lena Karlsson (UNICEF Innocenti Research Center), Cristina Gallegos (UNICEF) , Jaclyn Tierney (UNICEF) and Carolina Hepp (UNICEF).
Protecting the growth and development of today’s children is the key to fuelling tomorrow’s economic and social development. But, reports from national medical and research institutions indicate Viet Nam’s next generation of young people may not achieve their full intellectual and productive potential, simply because the food they eat does not contain enough essential vitamins and minerals.
Background paper prepared for unicef consultancy on "Equity in access to quality healthcare for women and children" (april 8-10, ha long city, Viet Nam)
This situational analysis provides estimates of the degree of inequality in both maternal and child mortality and other high-level maternal and child health outcomes causally related to maternal and child mortality, including child morbidity, children's nutritional status and fertility. Estimates are also provided for several key intermediate health outcomes causally related to maternal and child mortality, including family planning, antenatal care, obstetric delivery care, immunization and curative care. Both early estimates for 1992/93 and recent estimates for 2006 of inequality are presented and compared. The main data sources used in the situational analysis include three household surveys, i.e., the 1992/93 Vietnam Living Standards Survey (VLSS), the 2006 MICS III and the 2006 Viet Nam Household Living Standards Survey (VHLSS), and provincelevel data from the MOH Health Information System (HIS) and other sources. In addition to inequality estimates, the situational analysis presents the results of regression analysis used to identify the underlying factors, such as age, sex, education, income, urbanization and ethnicity that are most closely associated with these outcomes. The observed inequalities are also decomposed in order to quantify the contributions made by the various underlying factors to the observed inequality.
The first General Nutrition Survey was conducted between 1981-1985. Further surveys were carried out in 1987-1989 and in 2000. This fourth, and most recent General Survey, was conducted in 2009-2010.
In addition to the aforementioned general surveys, additional data have been collected in the following surveys: Epidemiological survey of vitamin A deficiency and exophthalmia (1985), Survey on maternal and child nutritional status and exophthalmia (1994), National survey of nutritional anemia (1995 and 2000), Assessing the PEM project (2004), and the General survey of overweight and obesity in adults (2005).
The 4th General Survey was conducted to evaluate the 2001-2010 National Nutrition Strategy goals, as well as to provide scientific evidence of trends in food consumption and nutrition status for the National Nutrition Strategy for 2011-2020, with a vision toward 2030.
In addition, data from the General Survey are also useful for nutrition research in national institutions and universities.
The National Institute of Nutrition worked closely in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, Department of Science and Training, Department of Preventive Medicine, Department of Maternal and Child Health, and Vietnam Food Administration to successfully conduct the survey.
We also gratefully acknowledge technical guidance from General Statistic Office and UNICEF Hanoi.
Special thanks are also due to the Department of Health and Preventive Medicine Centers in all provinces and cities, as well as local health care workers and households for their active participation.
We are delighted to present the findings of the comprehensive report on the General Nutrition Survey for 2009-2010.
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