After almost 30 years of renovation from a centralized planning economy to a market-oriented one, Vietnam has witnessed significant achievements in economic development, poverty reduction and international integration. Various areas of governance have been reformed and institutionalized to effectively facilitate this process.
Nevertheless, the planning process (including planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation) as an important state management tool still faces a number of constraints posed by the market economy and accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). The most notable and also the key limitation of the current planning process is the lack of an institutional framework from the central to local level on the reform of a results- based, participatory, and market driven planning process, even though this has been mentioned in important documents of the Party and the Government. Therefore, needs for planning reform and institutionalization of such a reform have become necessary and important.
Within their operation framework, many internationally-funded projects in Viet Nam have supported the government at all levels in piloting the planning reform. Some projects have developed and piloted different manuals to foster their planning reform mainly at communal level. The support of international organizations, on one hand, has helped localities and institutions pilot and apply modern and scientific planning tools and approaches. On the other hand, these initiatives fell short of consistence and coordination from the central to local levels in the whole planning system. In reality, the national, local and sectorial SEDPs are generally developed following conventional approach under the direction of Ministry of Planning and Investment’s annual planning guidelines.
Challenges and Opportunities for Intervention - A report based on qualitative research conducted in Vietnam
The research team would like to thank the Reproductive Health Department at the Ministry of Health for their overall guidance and support for this study. In particular, Dr. Phuong Hoa provided leadership and oversight of the study right from its conception, and allocated precious time and energy of herself and her colleagues in the department to ensure that it was successfully completed. The authors are also grateful to Dr. Hoang Tuan of the RHD for his support and oversight of all the logistical issues, including liaising with provincial offi ces, overseeing translation, and organizing meetings.
UNICEF Vietnam provided funding for this study under the national PMTCT project supported by them. Special thanks are due to Luisa Brumana, HIV/AIDS Specialist for her intellectual guidance of this piece of work, to Mai Thu Hien, UNICEF Programme Offi cer, for oversight, support and management of the study, and to Nguyen Ngoc Trieu for administrative support.
The researchers would also like to thank the Provincial RHD in An Giang, Ho Chi Minh City and Quang Ninh for their time and support in organizing interviews and providing information. In addition, we would like to thank the many health staff who were interviewed at commune, district and provincial levels. Finally, this study owes a debt of gratitude to the all the men, women and family members who volunteered their time to respond to our questions with openness and honesty.
Lastly, all errors and omissions are solely the responsibility of the lead consultant.
The amendment of the 1992 Constitution offers Viet Nam an opportunity to strengthen the rule of law, promote human rights and enhance equality as well as socio-economic and political stability. While the current draft includes a number of significant and positive changes, UNICEF believes the current draft can be made more responsive to the needs of a third of the country's population – its children.
UNICEF's mission is to advocate for the protection of children's rights, to help meet their basic needs and create opportunities to allow children to reach their full potential. UNICEF's work is guided by the provisions and principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). UNICEF has extensive experience, globally and regionally, supporting countries to reflect the rights of children within their constitutions.
A pilot involving four social audit tools was implemented in Viet Nam in 2010. Led by the Ministry of Planning and Investment (MPI), and supported by UNICEF, it aimed at building capacity for the social audit of the Socio-Economic Development Plan (SEDP) to enhance the its social performance, as expressed in its ability to deliver continued improvement in the living standards of Viet Nam’s population in general and of vulnerable groups in particular. This focus was on achieving this through improved Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) of social dimensions of the 2006-2010 SEDP, particularly focusing on poverty reduction, health services for children under six years old, and gender.
The Central Institute for Economic Management (CIEM), under the authority of MPI, implemented the pilots with technical support of the UK-based Overseas Development Institute (ODI). CIEM also conducted a capacity assessment of government staff in using participatory methods for planning, monitoring and evaluation. Based on this and the lessons learned from the social audit pilots, a capacity development strategy has been developed. ODI has also developed a SEDP Social Audit Toolkit with detailed information on the four tools, based on the experience gained from piloting the tools in the Vietnamese context.
This report should be of interest to national and sub-national government officials in Viet Nam who are in charge of designing, implementing, monitoring and evaluating public policies, programs and services. It should also be of interest to UNICEF and other multilateral and donor agencies that assist the government of Viet Nam in meeting its development objectives, and interested in methods/tools that allow for greater participation of citizens in assessing public policies and programs.
This guide was written by Valerie Karr, a Ph.D candidate at Teachers College, Columbia University and an expert in the field of child education and disability.
The guide is a companion to the publication It’s About Ability, a child-friendly booklet version of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The development of both materials was initiated at UNICEF under the leadership of the Child Protection Section, with support from the Adolescent Development and Participation Unit. The guide and booklet were edited and produced by UNICEF’s Division of Communication.
UNICEF would like to thank Rosangela Berman Bieler and Sergio Meresman of the Inter-American Institute on Disability and Inclusive Development for peer-reviewing the guide. We also express appreciation to the many other people who commented on successive drafts: Helen Schulte (UNICEF), Ravi Karkara (UNICEF), Shaila Parveen Luna (UNICEF), Lena Karlsson (UNICEF Innocenti Research Center), Cristina Gallegos (UNICEF) , Jaclyn Tierney (UNICEF) and Carolina Hepp (UNICEF).
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5 October 2015 - Each year on World Habitat Day, we reflect on the state of human settlements and on what we want the cities of the future to look like.
This year’s observance follows the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development – an inspiring new framework that will guide our efforts to end poverty and ensure prosperity for all on a healthy planet.
The new Sustainable Development Goals – which include SDG-11 to “make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable” – represent a broad international consensus that recognizes sustainable urban development as a transformational approach. As part of an integrated agenda, cities and human settlements have an important role to play across the entire spectrum of the 2030 Agenda.
1 October 2015 - On the 25th anniversary of the International Day of Older Persons, we recognize that older persons are an enormous asset to society and make a significant contribution to global development.
On September 25 at United Nations Headquarters in New York, Heads of State and governments committed themselves to building a sustainable world where no one, regardless of their age or gender, is left behind. In implementing the newly adopted 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, we must account for the demographic changes of the next 15 years. These will have a direct bearing on the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.
New York, 25 September 2015
Esteemed co-Chairs of this post-2015 Summit,
Mr. President of the General Assembly,
Distinguished Heads of State and Government,
Ladies and Gentlemen,
We have reached a defining moment in human history.
The people of the world have asked us to shine a light on a future of promise and opportunity.
Member States have responded with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
The new agenda is a promise by leaders to all people everywhere.
It is a universal, integrated and transformative vision for a better world.
It is an agenda for people, to end poverty in all its forms.
An agenda for the planet, our common home.
An agenda for shared prosperity, peace and partnership.
It conveys the urgency of climate action.
It is rooted in gender equality and respect for the rights of all.
Above all, it pledges to leave no one behind.
21 September 2015 - This year's International Day of Peace comes at a time of deadly violence and destabilizing conflicts around the world. Rather than succumbing to despair, we have a collective responsibility to demand an end to the brutality and impunity that prevail.
I call on all warring parties to lay down their weapons and observe a global ceasefire. To them I say: stop the killings and the destruction, and create space for lasting peace.
Although it may seem hopelessly distant, the dream of peace pulses in the lives of people everywhere.
16 September 2015 - Not so long ago, humanity stood on the brink of a self-inflicted catastrophe. Our use of ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) had torn a hole in the ozone layer that protects us from the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation.
But we tackled this challenge. Thirty years ago, the international community signed the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. Under its Montreal Protocol, the world united to slash the production and consumption of CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances.