The purpose is to review progress on the implementation of the National Injury Prevention Policy and to make recommendations for future directions. Specific aims and objectives of the review were to: (i) Examine the conformity of national policy with international standards; (ii) Assess key achievements and constraints encountered by implementing agencies in the implementation of the National Policy; (iii) Identify lessons learned; and (iv) Provide specific recommendations based on the review for necessary adjustments and/or further development of the National Policy.
Key findings and conclusions
The Government of Vietnam - United Nations Joint Programme (JP) to fight Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) was developed by the Government of Vietnam together with United Nations (UN) Agencies to address the immediate emergency support needed to control the current outbreak. This programme includes two phases with estimated total cost of the Joint Programme is US$23.1 million for Phase I and Phase II combined. The overall objective of the programme is “To reduce the health risk to humans from avian influenza by controlling the disease at source in domestic poultry, by detecting and responding promptly to human cases, and by preparing for the medical consequences of a human pandemic”.
The midterm evaluation (MTE) of the JP Phase II is intended to: (i) Review progress of the JP towards its objectives and outcomes; (ii)Analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the management of the JP; (iii) Suggest adjustments to the programme (if needed); and (iv) Recommend concrete measures for improving the programme performance and achievement of the programme objectives and outcomes. In general, the Joint Programme has had impact on coordinating within and across the UN agencies and Ministries of the Government of Vietnam. Specifically, coordination between implementing agencies of the JP has been improved with a more holistic approach to solving a critical health issue for Vietnam and the region. In addition, HPAI control is improved due at least in part to the efforts of the JP and the concept of sustainable ecosystem health (managing the interface of animals, humans, and the environment) to prevent emerging infectious disease is present in bits and pieces of activities throughout the JP. Moreover, a number of key recommendations have been proposed for further improvign the JP.
Child injuries remain a growing public health problem and injuries are now acknowledged as one of the leading contributors to the global burden of disease. The evidence suggests that the burden of injury on children is unequal, with the greatest burden amongst the poor and in developing and middle income countries, compared with high income countries. These countries are where most of the world’s children live. In these countries children are exposed to considerable risk from hazards in all environments.
The set of provincial profiles was developed to facilitate the sub-national planning and programming process by UNICEF and the Government of Viet Nam for the next Country Programme cycle 2012-2016. It contains a total of eight statistical profiles representing the eight provinces that, after an extensive analytical selection process, were identified as representing the sub-national geographical focus for the coming five years, notably: Dien Bien, Kon Tum, Ninh Thuan, Dong Thap, An Giang, Ho Chi Minh City, Gia Lai and Lao Cai.
Each profile contains key demographic and socio-economic data by province, a provincial map with districts and its relative position on the map of Vietnam, a box on key emerging issues by province, as well as a column on national averages for comparison purposes. The main data source used is the 2009 Census, and efforts were made to disaggregate data in keeping with the equity focus. In addition to informing the sub-national planning and programming processes, the statistical profiles double as a baseline for monitoring purposes and as a fundraising tool for the next country programme cycle.
The eight focal provinces were selected based on a number of criteria, the most important of which being the depth and number of deprivations among children in a given province. Deprivation is measured based on a number of key social indicators (reflected in the profiles), including child mortality; stunting; net enrolment; and use of safe drinking water and sanitation, among others. Other considerations include: continuity and existing partnerships with provincial authorities, UNICEF and counterpart capacity, presence of partners, UNICEF added value, and regional balance.
This technical assessment was aimed at reviewing the implementation of the Health Insurance Law in Viet Nam with focus on marginalized groups including children under six, the poor and the near-poor and ethnic minority groups.
Overall, Viet Nam has made considerable progress in improving economic and social well-being such as reducing the absolute poverty rate and attaining rapid and sustained economic growth. Epidemiologically, Viet Nam has been experiencing a transition to that of a developing country with an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Financially, key expenditures on health have been increasing. Specifically, total health expenditure as a percentage share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increased slightly from 4.9% in 1998 to 6.4% in 2008, mainly as a result of increases in government and social security expenditures on health. The poor and children under six have been considered vulnerable groups in health financing policies in general, and in health insurance, in particular.
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